Brazil

 

2019

  • Rank: Comprehensive (Top10)
  • MIPEX Score (with Health): 64
  • LABOUR MARKET MOBILITY
  • FAMILY REUNION
  • EDUCATION
  • HEALTH
  • POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
  • PERMANENT RESIDENCE
  • ACCESS TO NATIONALITY
  • ANTI-DISCRIMINATION

Key Findings

Changes in policy

Over the past five years, the average MIPEX country increased by +2 points on the 100-point MIPEX scale. In contrast, Brazil improved by +12 points and experienced the second largest improvement of its integration policies of all MIPEX countries and the largest of all non-European MIPEX countries.

In 2014, Brazil was a country of ‘Equality on paper’ with only halfway favourable policies, where immigrants enjoyed basic rights and long-term security, but did equal opportunities.

As a result of major reforms mostly introduced in 2017, Brazil adopted a “comprehensive approach” to integration that is slightly favourable for societal integration, scoring 64/100 on MIPEX. Immigrants to Brazil enjoy more equal opportunities, greater long-term security and a few more basic rights.

Immigrants enjoy now more favourable policies in nearly all areas of societal integration: the labour market, education system, health, political participation, permanent residence and access to nationality. For example, thanks to the introduction of the new Migration Law (13.445/2017) and Decree 9199/17, immigrants in Brazil have the right to change employers, equal access to education and the right to join political partie, and unconditional path to permanent residence.

Positive changes on MIPEX indicators:

  • Immediate access to labour market
  • Access to compulsory and non-compulsory education
  • Membership in political parties
  • Required residence period for permanent residence
  • Periods of absence allowed for permanent residents
  • Naturalisation language level
  • Economic resources requirement for naturalisation
  • Dual nationality
  • Whole organisation approach in the health sector

Negative changes on MIPEX indicators:

  • Naturalisation language level

Conclusions and recommendations

Given Brazil’s new comprehensive approach to integration, Brazil moved into the MIPEX ‘Top Ten’. Brazil scores 64/100, higher than the MIPEX average country (50). Immigrants in Brazil enjoy more opportunities than obstacles for integration. They enjoy long-term security in Brazil and many of the same basic rights as Brazilian citizens. However, compared to the other ‘Top Ten’ countries, Brazil only goes halfway to promote equal opportunities. Brazil’s current policies encourage the public to see immigrants as equals and potential citizens, but not fully as their neighbours.

Although immigrants in Brazil enjoy overall slightly favourable policies, Brazil differs considerably in the degree of development of its policies in the eight MIPEX areas of integration policy. On the one hand, immigrants should be able to find a job, reunite their family, become permanent residents and citizens and be protected from discrimination. On the other hand, immigrants enjoy far less support to access healthcare and enjoy equal opportunities to education and political participation.

A country’s approach to integration matters because policies influence whether or not integration works as a two-way process. The way that governments treat immigrants strongly influences how well immigrants and the public interact and think of each other. Drawing on 130 independent scientific studies using MIPEX, integration policies emerge as one of the strongest factors shaping not only the public’s willingness to accept and interact with immigrants, but also immigrants’ own attitudes, belonging, participation and even health in their new home country.

Brazil is a leading country in Latin America, as its integration policies are more inclusive than in Argentina, Chile and Mexico and in traditional destination country Australia. However, Brazilian policies are less inclusive policies than in the other traditional destination countries (Canada, New Zealand and the US).

  • Labour market mobilitySlightly favourable: Ranking in the Top 10, Brazil’s policies provide migrants with access to employment, self-employment and social security. However, immigrants in Brazil receive only general—and no targeted—support to improve their professional skills and career.
  • Family reunificationFavourable: Ranking #1, immigrants in Brazil enjoy 'family-friendly' policies. Immigrants are able to request family reunification upon their arrival, for dependent and non-dependent relatives. and reunited relatives enjoy a secure status.
  • EducationUnfavourable: Since 2017, immigrants enjoy equal access to compulsory and non-compulsory education. However, the Brazilian education system lacks the targeted measures to address the inequalities and diversity related to migration. Migrant education policies in Brazil are some of the least developed among MIPEX countries.
  • HealthSlightly unfavourable: Legal immigrants, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants have access to healthcare but with little-to-no targeted information or support to access health services.
  • Political participationSlightly unfavourable: Immigrants in Brazil have no right to vote, although they can be members of political parties. Immigrants are informed and consulted ad hoc, able to join political parties since 2017, but not vote in local elections in Brazil, unlike in many South American countries.
  • Permanent residenceFavourable: Ranking #1 together with Finland, immigrants enjoy an unconditional path to become permanent residents and enjoy equal access to social security and assistance.
  • Access to nationalityFavourable: Ranking #3, immigrants in Brazil can become Brazilian citizens after short periods if they have A2-level Portuguese skills and no criminal record . Brazil has followed international trends, as dual citizenship is allowed (since 2016) and Brazilian-born migrant children acquire the Brazilian nationality automatically at birth.
  • Anti-discriminationFavourable: Immigrants who are victims of discrimination enjoy wide protections against discrimination and strong enforcement mechanisms. Brazil only lacks an effective specialised body with the powers to assist victims to access justice.

POLICIES - SUMMARY

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New results of MIPEX
(2014-2020)

We are pleased to announce that the new results of MIPEX (2014-2020) will be published by the end of 2020. MIPEX 2020 will include 52 European and non-European countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, EU28, India, Japan, Mexico, US and much more. Stay tuned!