Argentina

 

2019

  • Rank: Equality on paper
  • MIPEX Score (with Health): 58
  • LABOUR MARKET MOBILITY
  • FAMILY REUNION
  • EDUCATION
  • HEALTH
  • POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
  • PERMANENT RESIDENCE
  • ACCESS TO NATIONALITY
  • ANTI-DISCRIMINATION

Key Findings

Changes in policy

While most countries improved their policies over the past five years (on average, by +2 points), Argentina is one of the few countries to significantly backslide on its commitments to integration (-4 points). Compared to 2014, when the country adopted a more comprehensive approach, immigrants in Argentina now face greater insecurity and greater barriers to equal opportunities in Argentina. New obstacles emerged to labour market participation, education, political participation, health and access to nationality. For example, immigrant-led associations have fewer opportunities to be funded and consulted, once local government programs and the ‘table of migrant organizations’ were abolished.

Positive changes on MIPEX indicators:

  • Personal circumstances considered for refusing to renew of family reunification

Negative changes on MIPEX indicators:

  • Recognition of academic qualifications
  • Grounds for rejection, withdrawal, refusal for family reunification
  • Access to compulsory and non-compulsory education
  • Teacher training to reflect diversity
  • Public funding/support for national immigrant bodies
  • Strength of national consultive body
  • Criminal records requirement for naturalisation
  • Conditions for undocumented migrants

Conclusions and recommendations

Immigrants face slightly more opportunities than obstacles for societal integration in Argentina, whose policies score 58 on the 100-point MIPEX scale. Although immigrants in Argentina enjoy overall halfway favourable policies, major obstacles seem to emerge on education and political participation.

Argentina’s approach to integration is classified by MIPEX as ‘equality on paper’ only. As in most Chile and Mexico, immigrants in Argentina enjoy basic rights and long-term security, but they do not enjoy equal opportunities.

Argentina’s current approach encourage the public to see immigrants as equals and potential citizens. but not as their neighbours. Internationally, the ‘Top Ten’ MIPEX countries treat immigrants as equals, neighbours and potential citizens, and invest in integration as a two-way process for society.

A country’s approach to integration matters because policies influence whether or not integration works as a two-way process. The way that governments treat immigrants strongly influences how well immigrants and the public interact and think of each other. Drawing on 130 independent scientific studies using MIPEX, integration policies emerge as one of the strongest factors shaping not only the public’s willingness to accept and interact with immigrants, but also immigrants’ own attitudes, belonging, participation and even health in their new home country.

Argentina’s integration policies are similar to other Latin American countries. Their policies are slightly more advanced policies than in Chile and Mexico but more restrictive than Brazil’s more comprehensive approach to integration.

  • Labour market mobilityHalfway favourable: Immigrants enjoy equal access to the labour market, including self-employment. However, they only receive general and no targeted support to improve their professional skills and career.
  • Family reunificationSlightly favourable: Only permanent residents enjoy favourable access and a secure status for family reunification with close relatives.
  • EducationSlightly unfavourable: Immigrants have full access to compulsory education. However, the Argentinian education system does offer little targeted measures for immigrant pupils, intercultural education or support to access higher education.
  • HealthHalfway favourable: While the right to health is recognised in law, immigrants cannot rely on specific measures or support to secure equal access to health services in practice.
  • Political participationSlightly unfavourable: While some foreign citizens can vote in local elections and participate in political parties, they receive little information about these opportunities and, since 2015, fewer opportunities for funding and consultation of immigrant associations.
  • Permanent residenceSlightly favourable: Immigrants in Argentina, as in other Latin American countries, enjoy favourable conditions to become permanent residents with a secure status. However, permanent residents do not have equal access to social security and assistance in Argentina, unlike in most MIPEX countries.
  • Access to nationalityFavourable: Ranking in the Top 3, Argentina recognises dual nationality and citizenship at birth and provides a favourable path to naturalisation for foreign-born adults who can meet the two-years’ residence and economic and criminal record requirements. 
  • Anti-discriminationFavourable: Argentina’s favourable anti-discrimination protections and equality body require stronger mechanisms to enforce the law and help potential victims to seek justice.

POLICIES - SUMMARY

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New results of MIPEX
(2014-2020)

We are pleased to announce that the new results of MIPEX (2014-2020) will be published by the end of 2020. MIPEX 2020 will include 52 European and non-European countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, EU28, India, Japan, Mexico, US and much more. Stay tuned!