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, OVERVIEW

General conclusions on policy effectiveness

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Changes in immigrant population

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Changes in general context

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Key harmonised statistics

INDICATORYEARVALUE
Net migration200941,000
TCN immigration200938,922
Largest third country of origin2008Turkey, Morocco, China
Permits delivered for humanitarian reasons20108,197
Foreign as part of population20093.90%
Cities with largest TCN population2008Amsterdam 8.47% Rotterdam 7.97% Utrecht 5.94%
PREVNEXT

Changes in integration policy

MIPEX SCORE
 

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Labour Market Mobility
 
Health
 
Anti-discrimination
 
Long Term Residence
 
Access to Education
 
Political Participation
 
Access to Nationality
 
Family Reunion
 

TIMELINE

PREV
  • SEPTEMBER 2006
  • JANUARY 2007
  • MARCH 2009
  • AUGUST 2009
  • NOVEMBER 2010
NEXT

AREAS OF INTERGRATION

  • Labour Market Mobility

    Score:


    vs.
    AVERAGE
    • 6 of 39
    • 350,000
    • 45%
  • Health

    Score:


    vs.
    AVERAGE
    • 6 of 39
    • 350,000
    • 45%
  • Anti-discrimination

    Score:


    vs.
    AVERAGE
    • 6 of 39
    • 350,000
    • 45%
  • Long Term Residence

    Score:


    vs.
    AVERAGE
    • 6 of 39
    • 350,000
    • 45%
  • Access to Education

    Score:


    vs.
    AVERAGE
    • 6 of 39
    • 350,000
    • 45%
  • Political Participation

    Score:


    vs.
    AVERAGE
    • 6 of 39
    • 350,000
    • 45%
  • Access to Nationality

    Score:


    vs.
    AVERAGE
    • 6 of 39
    • 350,000
    • 45%
  • Family Reunion

    Score:


    vs.
    AVERAGE
    • 6 of 39
    • 350,000
    • 45%

LABOUR MARKET MOBILITY

Score: 43, Rank: 6 out of 39

Key findings

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POTENTIAL BENEFICIARIES

How many immigrants could be employed?

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Not in employment, education or training (NEET) for total, for men and for women

POLICY INDICATORS

Do immigrants have equal rights and opportunities to access jobs and improve their skills?

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DIMENSIONS FOR POLICY INDICATORS

Access to labour market

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Access to general support

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Targeted support

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Worker's right

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Strand scores on Labour market mobility (2014)

POLICY BOX

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REAL BENEFICIERIES

Are immigrants acquiring new skills?

Over the past decade, the number of naturalisations has plummeted from around 40000 in 2003/4 to between 6000-8000 since 2009. For example, according to the latest comparable data, only 6277 non-EU citizens naturalised in 2012.

Strand scores on Labour market mobility (2014)

CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

What other factors explain whether immigrants find skilled and well-paid jobs?

  • Most from less developed countries
  • Most long-settled
  • Mostly family or humanitarian migrants

OUTCOME INDICATORS

Are immigrants employed in qualified and well-paid jobs?

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Outcome indicator employment rate low-educated (latest year), employment rate high-educated (latest year), overqualification rate (latest year), in-work poverty (latest year) comparing immigrants and non-immigrants

EVIDENCE BASE

What do we learn from robust studies?

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FAMILY REUNION

Score: 43, Rank: 6 out of 39

Key findings

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POTENTIAL BENEFICIARIES

How many immigrants are potentially living in transnational couples?

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Share of separated couples among non-EU citizens

POLICY INDICATORS

How easily can immigrants reunite with family?

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DIMENSIONS FOR POLICY INDICATORS

Eligibility

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Conditions

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Security of status

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Rights associated

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Strand scores on Labour market mobility (2014)

POLICY BOX

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REAL BENEFICIERIES

Are families reuniting?

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CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

What other factors explain whether immigrants find skilled and well-paid jobs?

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OUTCOME INDICATORS

How often do immigrants reunite with family?

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Outcome indicator non-EU family reunion rate (2013)

EVIDENCE BASE

What do we learn from robust studies?

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ACCESS TO NATIONALITY

Score: 43, Rank: 6 out of 39

Key findings

Most restrictive citizenship policies lead to lowest naturalisation rates in Western Europe.

POTENTIAL BENEFICIARIES

Who can become a citizen?

In Europe, Austria has one of the highest shares of non-EU citizens eligible to naturalise. An estimated two out of every three adults meet the residence requirement. A comparatively high share (around 20%) are second generation adults who are not Austrian citizens.

Share eligible for naturalisation

POLICY INDICATORS

How easily can immigrants become citizens?

The path to citizenship in Austria is one of the longest and most burdensome, discretionary and expensive. Austria's policies are the most restrictive in Western Europe, alongside only HU, SK, BG and the Baltics. While immigrants are increasingly benefiting from liberalisations across Europe, most changes in Austria over the past decade have further restricted naturalisation and improvements have been minor.

DIMENSIONS FOR POLICY INDICATORS

Eligibility

Immigrants ' eligibility for Austrian citizenship is unfavourable. They face one of the longest residence requirements (10 years), unless they are exceptionally well-integrated (6 years, see box). Their Austrian-born children and even grandchildren do not even have an entitlement to citizenship, unlike in the majority of MIPEX countries (e.g. DE, most recently CZ and DK).

Conditions

The conditions for becoming Austrian are the most restrictive in Europe, alongside only CH, SK and RO. The requirements for language, good character, income and costs are among the most difficult in Europe. Immigrants must pass a citizenship test since 2006 and prove B1-level German since passage of the 38/2011 law, all without guaranteed access to sufficient state-funded German and citizenship courses (see instead DE and Nordics). The overall costs and fees can climb to 1000� or more, making the procedure the most expensive of all MIPEX countries besides CH.

Security of status

Immigrants who meet all the ordinary requirements can still be rejected in Austria's relatively discretionary procedure. Entitlements are stronger in most other Northwestern European countries, including DE. Furthermore, the grounds for withdrawing citizenship from naturalised Austrians are wider and the protections weaker than in most European countries.

Dual nationality

The renunciation requirement acts as a major deterrent to naturalisation. Austria is one of the last MIPEX countries resisting the trend towards full acceptance (see recent reforms CZ, DK, PL). Dual nationality is facilitated for the second generation in DE since 2014 and accepted for all naturalising immigrants in Austria's other neighbouring countries.

Dimension scores on Access to Nationality (2014)

POLICY BOX

The Nationality Law 188/2013 made minor improvements to the ordinary procedure and introduce a shorter procedure for the exceptionally well-integrated. Normal applicants cannot have used social benefits for 36 months (lowered from 3 years in 2013). Exemptions will also be made for applicants with permanent serious health problems. Exceptionally, immigrants can apply after 6 years if they can prove B2-level fluency or 3 years of active volunteering, two requirements that are not required by any other MIPEX country.

REAL BENEFICIERIES

How many immigrants are becoming citizens?

Over the past decade, the number of naturalisations has plummeted from around 40000 in 2003/4 to between 6000-8000 since 2009. For example, according to the latest comparable data, only 6277 non-EU citizens naturalised in 2012.

CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

What other factors explain why non-EU immigrants become citizens?

  • Most from less developed countries
  • Most long-settled
  • Mostly family or humanitarian migrants

OUTCOME INDICATORS

How often do immigrants become citizens?

Austria�s citizenship policies are the major factor deterring immigrants from becoming citizens. Non-EU immigrant men and women are much less likely to naturalise in countries with restrictive policies, such as Austria, CH and the Baltic states. Overall, only 40% of the non-EU-born in Austria have naturalised, one of lowest levels in Northwestern Europe. In 2012, Austria had the lowest naturalisation rate for non-EU citizens in Western Europe: 1.1 naturalisations for every 100 non-EU citizens, compared to 2.0 in DE and 3.4 in the EU on average. The naturalisation rates are also slightly below-average in Austria for non-EU citizens over 65 and from certain refugee-producing countries.

Outcome indicator total naturalisation rate (2012)

EVIDENCE BASE

What do we learn from robust studies?

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POLITICAL PARTICIPATION

Score: 43, Rank: 6 out of 39

Key findings

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POTENTIAL BENEFICIARIES

Who are disenfranchised from voting?

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Disenfranchised immigrants

POLICY INDICATORS

Do immigrants have comparable rights and opportunities to participate in political life?

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DIMENSIONS FOR POLICY INDICATORS

Electoral rights

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Political liberties

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Consultative bodies

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Implementation policies

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Strand and four dimension scores on political participation (2014)

POLICY BOX

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REAL BENEFICIERIES

How many non-EU immigrants are eligible to vote?

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CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

What other factors explain whether immigrants become politically active?

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OUTCOME INDICATORS

Are immigrants participating in political life?

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Outcome indicator political participation (2012)

EVIDENCE BASE

What do we learn from robust studies?

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ACCESS TO EDUCATION

Score: 43, Rank: 6 out of 39

Key findings

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POTENTIAL BENEFICIARIES

How many pupils have immigrant parents?

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Share of 1st or 2nd generation pupils (2012)

POLICY INDICATORS

Is the education system responsive to the needs of the children of immigrants?

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DIMENSIONS FOR POLICY INDICATORS

Access

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Targeting needs

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New opportunities

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Intercultural education

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Strand and four dimension scores on education (2014)

POLICY BOX

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REAL BENEFICIERIES

Are pupils with limited literacy getting remedial courses?

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Share of low-literacy pupils getting remedial courses (2012)

CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

What other factors explain whether potential victims report discrimination cases?

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Share and gap in school concentration of pupils with low-educated mothers (2012) for 1st, 2nd generation and non-immigrants

OUTCOME INDICATORS

How well are the children of immigrants achieving at school?

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Share and gap in math low-achievers with low-educated mothers (2012) for 1st, 2nd generation and non-immigrants

EVIDENCE BASE

What do we learn from robust studies?

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HEALTH

Score: 43, Rank: 6 out of 39

Key findings

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POLICY INDICATORS

Is the health system responsive to immigrants needs?

The path to citizenship in Austria is one of the longest and most burdensome, discretionary and expensive. Austria's policies are the most restrictive in Western Europe, alongside only HU, SK, BG and the Baltics. While immigrants are increasingly benefiting from liberalisations across Europe, most changes in Austria over the past decade have further restricted naturalisation and improvements have been minor.

DIMENSIONS FOR POLICY INDICATORS

Entitlements

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Access policies

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Responsive services

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Mechanisms for change

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Strand and four dimension scores on health (2014)

POLICY BOX

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LONG-TERM RESIDENCE

Score: 43, Rank: 6 out of 39

Key findings

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POTENTIAL BENEFICIARIES

Who can become long-term residents?

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Potential beneficiaries indicator: Share temporary residents out of TCN with 5+ years

POLICY INDICATORS

How easily can immigrants become long-term residents?

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DIMENSIONS FOR POLICY INDICATORS

Eligibility

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Conditions

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Security of status

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Rights Associated

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Strand and four dimension scores on long-term residence (2014)

POLICY BOX

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REAL BENEFICIERIES

How many immigrants are long-term residents?

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Number of long-term residents (2013) separately for EU and for national LTR

CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

What other factors explain whether immigrants become long-term residents?

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OUTCOME INDICATORS

How often do immigrants become long-term reisdents?

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Outcome indicator share with long-term residence (2013)

EVIDENCE BASE

What do we learn from robust studies?

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